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Every six hours it played a tune on 16 chimes, followed by a two-trumpet tantara, then by an organ tune and performance by “a holly bushe full of birds and thrushes, which at the end of the musick did singe and shake theire winges.” In the 19th century Queen Victoria of Great Britain owned a bustle that would play “God Save the Queen” when she sat down.
Some of the most illustrious composers in the history of music wrote for mechanical devices.
Through recordings, composers gained not only an easy familiarity with the music of others but also a new medium for their own works. Later, in 1925, Stravinsky composed a piano piece, (1924) incorporates a recording of a nightingale’s song in its third movement.
The contemporary American composer and teacher We have all been affected as composers, as teachers, as musicians by recordings to an extent that cannot possibly be calculated as yet. Much more important use of recording as a medium occurred toward mid-century in works fundamentally relying on recorded tape, such as In music education the phonograph was early adopted as a tool in teaching both serious students and laymen.
In notation, symbols are written down as a message to a trained performing musician who understands them and reinterprets them into sound.
Signals, on the other hand—being direct physical impressions of, and potential stimuli to, sounds—bypass the performer in their reproduction and, in some electronic compositions, even in their recording.
King Henry VIII of England owned an automatic virginal; his daughter Queen Elizabeth I in 1593 sent the sultan of Turkey an elaborate musical clock.In the popular music field especially, many performers cannot compete in live appearances with recordings in which they depend heavily on technical aid.There are some who feel that the phonograph may cause the demise of live performance in the concert hall, which, if it survives at all, will do so for social rather than musical reasons.The impact of recordings on the concert hall has also been enormous, both for classical and for popular performances.Performers today can hardly hope to attract a concert audience if they have not produced distinguished recordings; usually, their audiences, both at home and abroad, consist of persons who know the performers’ work through recordings.
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A possible indication of this trend is the disappearance of independent, nonacademic, nonprofessional classical music the study of the relationships between Western, non-Western, and primitive music—depends upon disc and tape recordings.